Scientific and practical journal
Automotive and Road expert evaluation
Scientific and practical journal
Automotive and Road expert evaluation
About the journal
HELLO TO THE READER
Dear Readers!

We bring to your attention the journal "Automotive and Road expert evaluation" of the Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University (MADI).
The journal is a periodical scientific and practical publication, the main task of which is to provide an opportunity for specialists to exchange experience, discuss the problems of expert activities in the automotive and road sector and conduct a joint search for ways to solve them.
The main goal of the publication is to improve expert activities in the Russian Federation, improve the quality of expert services in the road and road industry and the qualifications of specialists, as well as provide them with the necessary regulatory and approved methodological information.
The pages of the journal are supposed to publish the most interesting and significant scientific and applied and scientific and methodological developments, which will cover such areas of expert activity of the automobile and road industry as: auto technical expertise; examination of construction, municipal, agricultural, road-building equipment; road construction expertise; expertise in customs; road safety expertise; other expertise related to the automotive and road construction industry.
The journal will present the results of these expert works, methods developed by specialists for conducting such studies, as well as topical problems associated with the regulatory framework for the production of forensic examinations in the Russian Federation and proposed ways to solve them.
Due to the growing demand for expertise in the automotive and road industry and the lack of such periodicals, the journal will become a platform for developing advanced innovative approaches, and will also contribute to strengthening scientific ties. The publications of the journal may be of interest to both specialists, experts, lawyers, lawyers, judges, and other persons directly related to the appointment and production of forensic examinations in the Russian Federation.
Addressing the readers, I would like to emphasize that the editorial staff of the journal hopes for close cooperation with the readers.
We are waiting for your responses to the published articles and will try to do everything to be as useful to you as possible.

Best wishes and best regards,

editor-in-chief of the journal D.B. Efimenko

EDITORIAL BOARD
Editorial team:
Efimenko Dmitry Borisovich - Chief Editor (Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Acting Rector of MADI);
Karelina Maria Yurievna - Deputy Editor-in-Chief (Doctor of Technical Sciences, Doctor of Ped. Sciences, Professor, Head of the Machine Parts and Mechanism Theory Department, Vice-Rector for Research, MADI).
Fateev М.А. – Deputy Editor-in-Chief (Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Basic Department "Human Capital Development", Vice President, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation).

Members of the editorial board:
Benevolensky S.B. (Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Machine Parts and Mechanism Theory);
Woolman N.N. (Head of the forensic examination department of ANO SOYUZEKSPERTIZA CCI RF);
Demyanushko I.V. (Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Structural Mechanics, MADI);
Ivanov A.M. (Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department "Automobiles", MADI);
Malakhov A.Yu. (Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Technologies of Structural Materials, Head of the Expertise Department of TsADI, MADI);
Petrova L.G. (Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Technologies of Structural Materials, MADI);
Polygalova O.A. (Deputy General Director of ANO SOYUZEKSPERTIZA);
Talalay V.V. (senior lecturer of the "Road-building materials" department).

Vinogradova V.V. - executive Secretary.

Members of the technical editorial board:
Vinogradov B.A. - scientific editor;
Alekseeva M.Yu. - technical editor, computer layout;
Saprykin A.Yu. - Web Designer.
SECTIONS OF THE JOURNAL
  1. Autotechnical expertise.
  2. Examination of road construction equipment.
  3. Road construction expertise.
  4. Forensic technical expertise. Legal support.
  5. Discussion Platform.
  6. Information for experts.
JOURNAL DATA

The scientific and practical journal "Automotive and Road expert evaluation" was founded by the Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University (MADI) and ANO "SOYUZEXPERTIZA" of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation in 2021.


The journal is registered with the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Communications (Roskomnadzor). Registration number PI No. 77-83312 dated 05/19/2022.


The journal is registered in the National ISSN Center of the Russian Federation with the assignment of the International Standard Serial Number ISSN: 2949−365X.


The journal is included in the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI) eLIBRARY.RU - Информация об издании "Проблемы экспертизы в автомобильно-дорожной отрасли".


The headings of the journal according to the State Scientific and Technical Information Rubric (GRNTI):

  • 670000.Construction. Architecture.
  • 730000. Transport.
  • 550000. Mechanical engineering.

Categories according to the OECD international classifier of scientific directions:

  • 203. Mechanical engineer

The journal is published four times a year (once every three months).

The journal is published in electronic and printed versions.

The circulation of the printed version is 500 copies.

Format 60x84 / 8.

List of articles:
ISSUE №1(1)
AUTO TECHNICAL EXPERTISE
1).The methodology of the expertise determination of the causes of failure of fuel injectors of modern cars......................................................................................... 5

Authors:

Аleksandr Yu. Malakhov, Ph.D., malahov-alex@yandex.ru,

Aleksey N. Livanskiy, Ph.D., alex.lefmo@yandex.ru,

Maksim A. Karpov, Ph.D., makarpov@hotmail.com,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia


Abstract. The article shows the methodology of conducting automotive technical expertise of the causes of failure of fuel injectors of modern cars. The scheme of operation of the Common Rail fuel system is described, as well as the design of the most common types of fuel injectors. The article shows in detail examples of damage to parts of fuel injectors and their relationship with the malfunction manifested during the operation of the injector. The developed methodology can be used by experts (specialists) to investigate the causes of failure of fuel injectors of any brands and models of cars with the fuel system Common Rail.
Keywords: automobile-technical expertise, Сommon Rail, electromagnetic injector, piezoelectric injector, hydraulic density of the injectorWe are a leading firm in providing quality and value to our customers. Each member of our team has at least 5 years of legal experience. We love what we do.
2).OSAGO against CASCO .................................................................................... 23

Authors:

Pavel V. Bushuev, Ph.D., expert, helpsol@yandex.ru,

Aleksey N. Pronnikov, senior lecturer, expert, alekseipronnikov@yandex.ru,

Daniil V. Kabanov, expert, kabanowdan@ya.ru,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia


Abstract. The article deals with the problem of determining the cost of repair of a car that has received mechanical damage as a result of an accident, in conditions of exceeding the limit of payment under the OSAGO for the actual repair of a car insured and made under the CASCO. The technical, legal and moral and ethical issues of interaction between the parties in this process are considered: legal entities making decisions on the method and scope of restoration repairs and the person - the actual culprit of the accident. The current problems of evaluation expertises are shown.
Keywords: assessment of the cost of restoration repairs, OSAGO, CASCO.
3).Application of the stress-strain state modeling method in the production of automotive technical expertise............................................................................. 29

Authors:

Аleksandr Yu. Malakhov, Ph.D., malahov-alex@yandex.ru,

Maria Yu. Karelina, Dr.Sc., professor, karelinamu@mail.ru,

Larisa G. Petrova, Dr.Sc., professor, petrova_madi@mail.ru,

Aleksey E. Perekrestov, lead engineer, alemadi@mail.ru,

Valeriya A. Perekrestova, postgraduate, lirika013@yandex.ru,

Ilya A. Karpov, senior lecturer, mymail169@gmail.com,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia


Abstract.The article provides an example of using the method of modeling the stress-strain state of the object under study together with a metal science research complex to determine the exact cause of the destruction of parts and components of motor transport. It is shown that the use of this complex in the examination together with other methods allows for a complete and comprehensive study to identify the true and justified cause of the failure.
Keywords: automobile-technical expertise, modeling of stress-strain state, numerical method of continuum mechanics, finite element method.
ROAD CONSTRUCTION EXPERTISE
4).Issues of expertise of transport construction projects ...................................... 41

Authors:

Boris A. Vinogradov, Ph.D., associate professor, bvino@yandex.ru,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia


Abstract.The article deals with the issues of interaction of the design organization with the institution of expertise when considering the project of a transport construction and drawing up an expert opinion. Attention is paid to the need to provide qualitative justifications when considering the project.
Keywords: transport construction project, expertise institution, decision justification, objective and subjective estimations, normative literature, existing prices.
5).The practice of conducting road expertise........................................................ 47

Authors:

Aleksey A. Sharov, General Director of the consulting company LLC "AVERTA GROUP", PRO BONO expert, Head of the Public Chamber of the Ombudsman for the Protection of Entrepreneurs' Rights in Moscow, sharov@avertagroup.ru,

26 Leninskaya Sloboda str., Omega-2 Business Center, building A, office 538, Moscow, 115280, Russia


Abstract.The relevance of the article is due to the consideration of the key features of road expertise, as well as the scope of its application in modern realities. The purpose of this study is to highlight all the nuances of conducting this narrow-profile examination from a practical expert point of view, to consider the most significant modern research in the field of assessing the quality of the country's highways. The objectives of this study are: to study the specifics of road expertise, to review existing methods of studying Russian highways, to identify and analyze the problems encountered by the expert. The result of the study is the proposal of ways to solve problems during the examination.
Keywords: road inspection, expert, report, road surface.
FORENSIC TECHNICAL EXPERTISE.
LEGAL SUPPORT
6).Problems of legal support of forensic expertise in the Russian Federation........ 52

Authors:

Аleksandr Yu. Malakhov, Ph.D., malahov-alex@yandex.ru,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia,

Dmitriy E. Ivliev, expert-technician, appraiserd, ivliev@estls.ru,

ESTLS, 43/1, Altufevskoe shosse., Moscow, 127410, Russia


Abstract. The article presents the main normative legal acts of the current legislation that determine the legal support for the production of forensic expertises in the Russian Federation. The important problems of legal support of forensic expertises that require solutions are considered.
Keywords: forensic expertise, regulatory legal acts, legal support.
ISSUE №1(2)
AUTO TECHNICAL EXPERTISE
1).Research of the causes of failure of the differential transmission of the car........ 3

Authors:

Аleksandr Yu. Malakhov, Ph.D., malahov-alex@yandex.ru,

Maria Yu. Karelina, Dr.Sc., professor, karelinamu@mail.ru,

Aleksey E. Perekrestov, lead engineer, alemadi@mail.ru,

Valeriya A. Perekrestova, postgraduate, lirika013@yandex.ru,

Aleksey N. Pronnikov, senior lecturer, expert, alekseipronnikov@yandex.ru,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia


Abstract. The article shows examples of conducting a comprehensive automotive research of the causes of failure of the differential of modern cars. Various car differential designs are considered, the principle of its operation is described, as well as materials, types of heat treatment and methods of surface hardening of its parts are shown. The article also focuses on the possible reasons for the failure of the automobile differential, which must be taken into account by an expert during the production of automotive technical expertise.
Keywords: automobile-technical expertise, metal science expertise, differential, main gear, satellite axis.
2).What does lowquality fuel in a modern car lead to? A series of articles. Part 1. Fuel equipment malfunctions................................................................................ 23

Authors:

Аleksandr Yu. Malakhov, Ph.D., malahov-alex@yandex.ru;

Aleksey N. Livanskiy, Ph.D., alex.lefmo@yandex.ru;

Maksim A. Karpov, Ph.D., makarpov@hotmail.com;

Bulat F. Enikeev, Ph.D., b708@mail.ru;

Anvar А. Khaziev, Ph.D., madi-chim@mail.ru;

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia


Abstract. A series of articles on the topic: "What low-quality fuel leads to in a modern car" is divided into three parts: fuel equipment failures, internal combustion engine failures and failures of the catalytic converter of exhaust gases. This article is the first of the series and describes the consequences for fuel equipment parts due to the use of low-quality fuel. The article presents current regulatory documents in the Russian Federation regulating the quality of automobile fuel. Examples of damage to parts of the fuel equipment of the car are presented, which experts examine during the course of automotive technical examinations and which are directly related to deviations of specific parameters of the quality of the fuel used.
Keywords: automobile-technical expertise, low-quality fuel, fuel equipment, nozzle, high-pressure fuel pump.
3).Metallographic studies of the causes of fatigue failures of crankshafts ingine during the automotive expertise ........................................................................... 37

Authors:

Larisa P. Shestopalova, Ph.D., associate professor, ntibr@mail.ru,

Tatyana E. Likhacheva, Ph.D., 15329022@ yandex.ru,

Larisa G. Petrova, Dr.Sc., professor, petrova_madi@mail.ru,

Aleksey E. Perekrestov, lead engineer, alemadi@mail.ru,

Аleksandr Yu. Malakhov, Ph.D., malahov-alex@yandex.ru,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia


Abstract. By methods of optical, scanning electron microscopy and various instrumental methods, the mechanisms of fatigue operational destruction of crankshafts from steels of various grades have been investigated. A generalization of the causes leading to the occurrence of destruction in the process of operation. The article gives examples of fatigue destruction of crankshafts that occurred in various operating conditions. To determine the cause of the destruction and establish the initial focus of destruction that led to complete destruction, a wide range of studies is involved, which allows to show in each case the sequence of the examination to determine the exact cause of the destruction of the crankshaft. It is shown that the use of a wide range of equipment in the conduct of automotive technical expertise allows for a more complete and comprehensive study and to establish the true cause of the destruction of a part or assembly.
Keywords: automobile-technical expertise, crankshaft, fatigue destruction, fatigue grooves (lines), metallurgical defects, fractography.
EXPERTISE OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
4).The cause of damage to the piston of the gas diesel engine of a dump truck after major repairs......................................................................................................... 59

Authors:

Tatyana E. Likhacheva, Ph.D., 15329022@ yandex.ru,

Larisa P. Shestopalova, Ph.D., associate professor, ntibr@mail.ru,

Irina S. Belashova, Dr.Sc., professor, irina455@inbox.ru,

Larisa G. Petrova, Dr.Sc., professor, petrova_madi@mail.ru,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia


Abstract. The article shows an example of a study of the cause of an engine failure of a dump truck after its capital repairs. As the conducted research has shown, the cause of engine failure is associated with poorly performed restorative repairs of its fuel equipment. The inspection by the repair organization of fuel pump injectors after the restoration repair also did not meet the requirements of GOST 10579-2017 "Diesel injectors. Technical requirements and test methods". As a result, deviations were made in the parameters of the fuel injector, which caused the piston of the second cylinder of the engine under study to melt.
Keywords: gas diesel engine, quarry dump truck, engine piston, pump-injector, fuel equipment.
FORENSIC TECHNICAL EXPERTISE.
LEGAL SUPPORT
5).Suvorov Yu.B., Sadanova D.A. Special features of studing academic disciplines of legal and customs regulation in transport in a remote format................................ 68

Authors:

Yuri B. Suvorov, Dr.Sc., professor, yu.suvorov@madi.ru,

Dar'ja A. Sadanova, student, d.sadanova@madi.ru,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia


Abstract. The article describes approaches to learning based on the method of distance education. Based on the analysis of institutional principles for the implementation of e-learning, we provide justifications for the effective implementation of remote training of students, based on the necessary and sufficient conditions. Because, modern, and most importantly, successful assimilation of the course presupposes active, creative participation of the student in all stages of studying the disciplines taught. Using the example of solving a specific educational task, it is shown how the results of expert assessment and legal qualification of the actions of road transport workers involved in an accident can be used as an illustration of the relevant lecture material for distance learning students. The authors discuss a large number of both advantages and disadvantages of using this system of obtaining knowledge. In addition, they analyze possible results for its further application. We have identified the most important educational aspects that arise during the implementation of the proposed system. We have identified both positive and negative aspects of this type of training, made certain conclusions and proposed recommendations to improve the quality of training of future experts in terms of legal regulation.
Keywords: methodology for the development of a distance course, expert assessment of an accident, legal qualification, educational task, investigation of an accident.
6).Procedural errors made by experts during the production of forensic
expertise................................................................................................................73

Authors:

Аleksandr Yu. Malakhov, Ph.D., malahov-alex@yandex.ru, MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia Oksana A. Polygalova, court expert, deputy general director, info@soex.ru,

Natalya N. Vulman, court expert, Head of the Forensic Examination Department, info@soex.ru,

ANO «SOUYZEXPERTIZA» CCI RF, 13/17, 1 M. Dmitrovka str., Moscow, 125009, Russia


Abstract. This article shows the most common procedural errors that experts make at the stage of preparation and production of an expert study, as well as when preparing the content of an expert opinion. These errors are linked to specific articles of the legislative documents in force in the Russian Federation. The authors hope that the article will help experts to avoid the procedural errors listed in it during their forensic examinations.
Keywords: forensic expertise, procedural expert errors, legislative documents.
ISSUE №2(3)
AUTO TECHNICAL EXPERTISE
1).Malakhov А.Yu., Karelina M.Yu., Perekrestov A.E., Perekrestova V.A., Мagomedov М.-sh.М., Butov А.М. Research of cast iron automobile parts..................................3

Authors:

Аleksandr Yu. Malakhov, Ph.D., malahov-alex@yandex.ru,

Maria Yu. Karelina, Dr.Sc., professor, karelinamu@mail.ru,

Aleksey E. Perekrestov, lead engineer, alemadi@mail.ru,

Valeriya A. Perekrestova, senior lecturer, lirika013@yandex.ru,

Мagomed-sharip М. Мagomedov, student, m-sharip05@mail.ru,

Аndrey М. Butov, student, butov_02@inbox.ru,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia

Abstract. In a car, various grades of cast iron are also used as a material for the manufacture of its parts, along with steels. And although, compared with steels, cast iron is used to a lesser extent for the manufacture of various parts in the automotive industry, its role is quite high, and the range of parts is extensive. The article provides examples of the use of various grades of cast iron as a material for the manufacture of critical car parts, and also shows examples of conducting a comprehensive automotive and metal science study of the causes of failure of such products.
Keywords: automobile-technical expertise, metal science expertise, grey cast iron, highstrength cast iron, brake disc, piston rings, cylinder head.
ROAD CONSTRUCTION EXPERTISE
2).Bobov G.I. Issues of automation of drawing up a draft estimate of a contract of capital construction facilities.................................................................................25

Authors:

Gleb I. Bobov, construction expert, director of the construction consulting department, bobov@soex.ru,

ANO «SOUYZEXPERTIZA» CCI RF, 13/17, 1 M. Dmitrovka str., Moscow, 125009, Russia

Abstract.The article raises questions of the need to create or refine existing software systems and methods for automating the process of drafting a contract estimate, the subject of which is the construction or reconstruction of capital construction facilities. The main advantages of this approach in drafting the contract estimate are shown
Keywords: draft contract estimate, capital construction, automated system.
3).Petrova L.G. Metallurgical examination of structural failures due to cold brittleness: a historical overview............................................................................29

Authors:Larisa G. Petrova, Dr.Sc., professor, petrova_madi@mail.ru.,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia

Abstract.The paper considers the problem of cold-brittle fracture of steels as a cause of brittle fracture of structures. The theoretical information about the phenomenon of cold brittleness and methods for determining the transition temperature of ductile-brittle fracture are given. The analysis is carried out of metallurgical and structural factors influencing the transition of steel to the brittle state with temperature decrease: grain size, oxygen, carbon and harmful impurities content, the presence of nonmetallic inclusions of unfavorable form. A historical review of accidents of structures (bridges, ships, storage tanks) that occurred in the twentieth century is presented, as the causes of which are established the presence of one or more factors that led to the brittle failure of steel under the action of negative temperatures.
Keywords:cold brittleness, structural steels, coarse-grained structure, impact toughness, brittle fracture.
4).Vinogradov B.A. Formation of runoff on unpaved sections of transport
facilities ............................................................................................................... 47

Authors:

Boris A. Vinogradov, Ph.D., associate professor, bvino@yandex.ru,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia

Abstract. The article presents the results of expert studies on the hydraulic calculation of drainage systems of airfields in conditions of change in the main climatic parameters. The results of comparison of the calculated values of the surface water coming from the ground areas and determinate by two calculation methods are presented.
Keywords: precipitation intensity, catchment area, conditions of runoff formation, estimated flow rate, method of maximum intensities, method of maximum runoff volumes.
FORENSIC TECHNICAL EXPERTISE.
LEGAL SUPPORT
5).Diyakov А.A., Likhacheva T.E., Shestopalova L.P. Ensuring proper storage of possible objects of judicial research..................................................................... 54

Authors:

Аnatoliy A. Diyakov, Ph.D., associate professor, diakov.anatol@ya.ru,

Tatyana E. Likhacheva, Ph.D., 15329022@ yandex.ru,

Larisa P. Shestopalova, Ph.D., associate professor, ntibr@mail.ru,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia

Abstract. The article shows the consequences of improper storage, extraction or transportation of the object of forensic examination. Prolonged storage of parts without proper preservation can lead to their severe corrosion damage, which will make such research objects unsuitable for the production of objective forensic examination. The article provides recommendations on the implementation of measures to ensure the safety of the object of study.
Keywords: forensic examination, corrosion damage, improper storage, conservation of the object of study.
6).Malakhov А.Yu. Preparation of a judicial expert opinion.................................... 61

Authors:

Аleksandr Yu. Malakhov, Ph.D., malahov-alex@yandex.ru,

MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia ssia

Abstract. The article shows an example and describes the basic principles of drawing up a judicial expert opinion, shows the regulatory sources that can be used by experts in the preparation of this document. The recommendations specified in the article should help experts avoid mistakes when drawing up a judicial opinion and simplify the production of forensic examinations by them
Keywords: forensic expertise, structure, design, binding and stitching of the expert opinion.
Information for authors
Journal News
In july 2022, a new issue of the journal 2(3)/2022 was published, which you can find on our website in the "Issues" section.
__________________________________________________________________________

The editorial office opens a new section of the magazine "Discussion Platform".
The editorial board of the journal informs you that a new section "Discussion Platform" will be launched on the pages of our journal, where you will be able to express your positive or negative opinion (judgment) regarding any topic (problem) considered within the framework of published articles.
A discussion is a dialogue during which its participants try to come to a common opinion, to reach an agreement on any issue.
Sometimes a dispute may arise during the discussion of a problem, but the purpose of the discussion is not to defeat the enemy and impose one's opinion, but to find the most optimal solution, compromises, and the development of new ideas.
Discussion is often considered as a method that activates the process of studying a complex topic, theoretical and scientific problem.
It will be very important for us to know your opinion about the published materials in the journal, as well as to familiarize other readers of our journal with it.
The text of the message does not have to be designed in accordance with the rules for the design of articles for the journal. You can simply forward it to the journal's email address aree@madi.ru , and it will definitely be published in the next issue. If you wish, this message can even be published anonymously.
__________________________________________________________________________
We are waiting for your full-fledged articles for the magazine and messages to the "Discussion Platform" section!
REQUIREMENT FOR ARTICLE

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION AND WRITING OF SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES

The presented material (paper) should correspond to the main subjects, to be original, not previously published in other publications. Edited and proofread by the author. The editors reserve the right to check the text for plagiarism. The originality of the text should be 70% or more.

The scientific article should contain 8-15 pages in A4 format, portrait orientation, Times New Roman font, color - black, font size - 14; interval - 1,5, field 2.5 cm on all sides. References are to be cited in brackets within the text. Example [1, p. 5]. Pagination is not affixed.

The presence of figures (no more than 8), formulas (no more than 15) and tables is allowed only in cases where a process cannot be described in textual form. Figures should be clear, black and white. The text in the figures must be readable. Formulas are typed in the formula editor (Microsoft Equation, Mattype). Insertion of formulas in the form of images is not permitted.

Scientific articles structure is as follows: Title, Abstract, Keywords, Main text (must have an introductory part), the data on the methodology of research, an experimental part, a conclusion and references.

In the upper left corner you must specify the UDC (http://lib.sportedu.ru/UDC.idc).

Page orientation of the article should be a book.

Title of the article: First name, patronymic, family name of the author (s) without abbreviations, academic degree, title, position, name of the institution or the scientific organization, with postal address and index, in which the work was done, e-mail of the author (s) (in Russian and English).

Abstract. It describes the goals and objectives of the research and its practical application (in Russian and English). The text of the annotation should not contain the title of the article.

Keywords. A set of keywords has to include the concepts and terms mentioned in article, and confirming relevance and novelty of the discussed researches and their results (3-5 words and phrases) (in Russian and English).

Introduction. In the introduction, the relevance of the study is formulated, the value of scientific evidence in theory and practice.

Main part. It must occupy a central place in your article by size. The main part should contain methodology of research, the content of experiment its analysis, synthesis, and an explanation of data or comparison of theories. If the article is theoretical, the thoughts and ideas that will be further analyzed must be stated.

Conclusions and recommendations. This section sums up the results of scientific research. The conclusions should logically correspond to the tasks stated at the beginning of the article.

References (References). References in Cyrillic script shall be in accordance with GOST 7.1-2003. In Latin script, references are made in accordance with international standards (http://ru.translit.net).

The composition of the sources should be relevant and contain at least 8 articles from scientific journals not earlier than 10 years, 4 of them - not earlier than 3 years. Among the sources, there should not be more than 20% that were written or co-written by the author himself. When selecting the source it is recommended to consider its availability. It is desirable to have access to the texts of the Internet. References should contain at least 10 sources.

Articles must be signed, contain a review signed and stamped by the reviewer and information about the author (s). The information about the author can specify the number of scientific publications in journals and books (number of books, monographs, teaching aids published in this area). Articles are to be sent in by regular post or e-mail or delivered directly by the author to the publisher, 405н. Registered letters and parcels will not be accepted. Letters rejected by the publisher shall not be returned to sender.

Articles written by graduate students are published free of charge.

The Editorial office encourages authors to subscribe to the magazine in advance.

More information and a sample of an article is posted on the website MADI in the "Vestnik of MADI" section.

GUIDELINES (REFERENCES)

Foreign standards do not incorporate the use of the sign // and - (dash) between the year and the page number, and if the Russian-language bibliographic description does not list all the authors (written "and others."), references that specify all the authors are required.
1. Articles from Russian-language journals and books, conference proceedings:
Articles from journals:
Bochcarev I.A., Fedorov I.I. (All last names are written in the beginning of the reference in regular font) (name of article is not included) Vestnik (title of the journal in italics)2016, no. 9, pp. 2-8 (year, number, pages with a lowercase letter, regular font, separated by commas).
Articles from a collection of works:
Bochcarev A.I., Fedorov I.I. (All last names are written in the beginning of the reference in regular font) (name of the article is not included) Problemy prava (the name of the collection in italics), Sbornik statei, Moscow (place of publication is to written in English, rather than in Russian, using English letters), 2016, pp. 7-12. (Place of publication, year, pages with a lowercase letter, regular font, separated by commas).
Articles from conference materials:
Bochcarev I.A., Fedorov I.I. (All last names are written in the beginning of the reference in regular font) (name of the article is not included) Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii "Strategicheskoe upravlenie i controlling", Moscow, 2016, pp. 108-104.
Article from online resources:
Bochcarev I.A., Fedorov I.I. (All last names are written in the beginning of the reference in regular font) (name of the article is not included) Electronny zhurnal "Trudy MAI", 2016, no. 54, available at: http // www / mal / ru / science
2. Books, book chapters:
Bochcarev I.A., Fedorov I.I. (All last names are written in the beginning of the reference in regular font) Obespechenie nadezhnosti system (book title in Latin letters in italics) (Ensuringthe Realiability of system) (in brackets Roman font name in English translation), Moscow (place of publication Roman font in English), Progress 2018, 215, p. (If the article is given, the specified page: pp. 6-12).
3. Patents:
Bochcarev I.A., Fedorov I.I. Patent RU 2230870 C2, 20.06.2004.
4. Standards:
Shum. Obshchie trebovaniya bezopasnosti, GOST 1210033-76 (Neise. General safety reguirements, State Standart 1210033-76), Moscow, standarty, 1992, 9 p.
5. Regulations:
O merakh gosudarstvennoy podderzhki. Posyanovlenie pravitelstva Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 09.04.2010, № 218 (On Measures of State Support. Decree of Russion Federation of 09.04.2010 no. 218), Moscow, 2010.
6. English sources are cited in the original language in full:
Article:
Sooper L.P. Status of advanced for space-baced orbital transfer vehicle, Acta Astronautica, 2018, no. 5, pp. 515-518.
Book:
Sooper L.P. Status of advanced for space-baced orbital transfer vehicle, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2018, 245 p.

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